Home

Kurdish culture

Kurdish culture has a rich oral tradition. Most popular are epic poems called lawj, and they often tell of adventure in love or battle. Kurdish literature first appeared in the seventh century AD. In 1596, Sharaf Khan, Emir of Bitlis, composed a history of the Kurds in Persian called the Sharafnama The Kurdish Culture is characterized by their tradition. Kurds are traditional people, who have their norms and values, which are more than thousand years old. Just as the tribal structure of Kurdish society has lasted for centuries, also the old customs of the culture and traditions are kept alive It's the Kurdish culture, not Islam, which belittles women and violates their rights every day. For instance, Islam has not ordered female circumcision, but the Kurdish culture has been doing it in the name of Islam. Islam never tells you that if your daughter, sister, mother or wife had an affair with someone, then kill her. It's the Kurdish man's mentality that decides to kill a woman.

Detribalization proceeded intermittently as Kurdish culture became urbanized and was nominally assimilated into several nations. In traditional Kurdish society, marriage was generally endogamous. In nonurban areas, practices such as arranged marriage and child marriage are common. Households typically consist of father, mother, and children Kurdish heritage is rooted in one of the world's oldest cultures. The earliest known evidence of a unified and distinct culture (and, possibly, ethnicity) of the inhabitants of the Kurdish mountains dates back to the Halaf culture of 5400 - 6000 B.C. This was followed which was a foreign introduction from Mesopotamia Kurds (Kurdish: کورد,Kurd ‎) or Kurdish people are an Iranic ethnic group native to a mountainous region of Western Asia known as Kurdistan, which spans southeastern Turkey, northwestern Iran, northern Iraq, and northern Syria Perfekte Kurdish Culture Stock-Fotos und -Bilder sowie aktuelle Editorial-Aufnahmen von Getty Images. Download hochwertiger Bilder, die man nirgendwo sonst findet Drinking tea directly after each meal in Kurdish culture, for example, is a habit that came from our ancestors. If you happen to see a Kurdish person suffering from headache just offer them a cup of tea. They will not forget the favor for the rest of their lives. Special things in Kurdish peopl

Learn About Kurdish Culture The Kurdish Projec

  1. important in Kurdish village life. There are about 1 million Kurdish 'Alawis (a secretive faith based on and distinct from Islam) in Turkey, and 40,000 to 70,000 Yazidis mostly in Armenia and Azerbaijan. Yazidism is a small religion that combines aspects of Islam, Judaism, A very few Kurds are Christian
  2. Borne from a long history of strife, Kurdish culture places value on individual freedoms. Whether it be overt religious tolerance, strides towards equality in the status of women, or democratic government, Kurdish culture values individual life and has fiercely defended its ability to live free from external rule
  3. Kurdische Kultur ist eine Gruppe von unverwechselbaren kulturellen Züge durch praktizierte kurdische Volk.Die kurdische Kultur ist ein Erbe aus alten Völker , die modernen Kurden und ihre Gesellschaft geprägt
  4. Frauen Im Militär Kulturelle Vielfalt Kurdistan Weltkulturen Celebration of the Kurdish Pomegranate Festival in Satiari village, Kirmasan. Every year in mid-autumn Kurdish villagers all around Paveh county hold the Pomegranate Festival to celebrate the Harvesting season
  5. Kurdish culture is a group of distinctive cultural traits practiced by Kurdish people. The Kurdish culture is a legacy from ancient peoples who shaped modern Kurds and their society. WikiMili. Kurdish culture Last updated August 16, 2020. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages.

The Kurdish Culture - Referat, Hausaufgabe, Hausarbei

This work is a bibliography on Kurdish culture and society. It covers topics such as anthropology, archaeology, art, communications, journalism, literature, migration, religion, social structure and urbanization. It should be a useful guide for researchers interested in the Kurds and Kurdistan. Über den Autor und weitere Mitwirkend I made a video to present the kurdish culture. Of course there are more clothes, writers poets dances etc I did it just with the most important.. Kurdish peo.. Kurdish Culture, Edinburgh, United Kingdom. 2,378 likes · 1 talking about this. Identifying Kurdish Culture and History and developing south Kurdistan like an autonomous region in the north of Iraq Kurdish Culture, Huddinge kommun. 625 likes · 1 talking about this. Facebook site contain kurdish cultures informatio There really is not enough visual difference between Kurds, Arabs and Turks to merit seperate cultures. Plus it helps Ottoman to blob the region if it is all their culture so make all Middle-East Saracen culture and be done with it. Why are all good people already dead? R.I.P. Dee Dee Ramon

The changes in animal husbandry and agriculture caused an erosion of Kurdish life, and consequently, in Kurdish food culture as well. We have no written material concerning the food culture and cuisine of the Kurds. However there are some historical sources which allow us to connect the Kurdish eating habits with their earlier history. Preserved sheep bones from 600 BC found in Iraqi Kurdistan. Bans on Kurdish cultural events or activities are not rare in Turkey. The outlawing of the Kurdish-language play Beru has been condemned as the latest attack on Kurdish culture. It all happened.. Kurdish Culture A Cross-Cultural Guide. Eine umfassende Einführung in die kurdische Kultur von der Gastfreundschaft über die Weltanschauung und Benimmregeln hin zur kurdischen Küche. Mit zahlreichen Kurzgeschichten und Rezepten. 2. Auflage - Januar 2005 • EAN: 9783932829949 • Größe: 15,0 x 21,0 x 2,0 cm • 360 Seiten • Verlag: Verlag für Kultur und Wissenschaft. Kurdish Culture and Society: An Annotated Bibliography (Bibliographies and Indexes in Ethnic Studies Book 9) (English Edition) eBook: Meho, Lokman I., Maglaughlin, Kelly L.: Amazon.de: Kindle-Sho Buch Kurdish Culture - A Cross Cultural Guide Preis: 12 € VB Anzeigen mit ähnlichen Bildern suchen Autorin Denise L. Sweetnam Verlag für Kultur und Wissenschaft 1. Auflage Bonn 1994 335 Seiten, Paperback. Das Buch ist absolut neuwertig, innen und außen sauber. Das Cover hat leichte Benutzungsspuren. Auf dem Vorsatzblatt befindet sich eine Widmung mit Unterschrift der Verfasserin. Das Buch.

This survey of Kurdish culture describes the differences that exist in a community that is spread across four countries in the region - Iraq, Iran, Turkey and Syria - and recognizes that Kurdish culture is changing. Successive chapters deal with Kurdistan's written literature and oral tradition, the development of book publishing and other modern media, the range of Islamic and other religious. Kurdish Culture Anita Palomo Anthropology 101 Mr. Steven Sager January 21, 2013 Kurdish Culture The Kurdish people are an indigenous ethnic minority found in the country of Iraq, also in parts of Turkey, North West Iran and smaller areas of North East Syria and Armenia. Ethnically parallel to the Iranians, the Kurds in the past traditionally nomadic herders but are currently mostly seminomadic. 2. Cultural Significance. The Kurds have a very rich cultural heritage, and have contributed significantly towards the enrichment of the global cultural repertoire by means of their impressive works of literature, art and craft, music and dance, architecture, and sports alike. The Kurdish art of weaving is quite famous globally, with a high.

On Kurdish Culture The Kurdistan Tribun

Kurdish Culture (Buch - Paperback) A Cross-Cultural Guide. Denise L. Sweetnam Schreiben Sie die erste Kundenmeinung. Denise L. Sweetnam Kurdish Culture (Buch - Paperback) A Cross-Cultural Guide. Schreiben Sie die erste Kundenmeinung. Artikelinformationen Artikel teilen . Eine umfassende Einführung in die kurdische Kultur von der Gastfreundschaft über die Weltanschauung und Benimmregeln hin. Kurdish troops known as peshmerga play volleyball near Kirkuk. Kurdish forces fought against the Islamic State when it began to capture Iraqi towns in 2014 Kurdish Culture is a group of distinctive cultural traits practiced by Kurdish people. The Kurdish culture is a legacy from ancient peoples who shaped modern Kurds and their society. Some aspects of Kurdish culture are close to that of other Iranian peoples; for example all of them celebrate Newroz as the new year day, whic

Kurdish culture 1. Prepared by Mustafa Abdul Kareem 2. Kurdish flag 3. Demographics •There are between 30-35 million kurds living in various countries around the world. Many Kurdish people are of Indo-European descent.• 52% of the Kurdish population lives in Turkey.• 1.5% of the Kurdish population lives in the Commonwealth of Independent States.• 4. Brief History The roots of the. Jul 16, 2016 - Explore Suz Mayi's board kurdish culture on Pinterest. See more ideas about Kurdistan, Culture, The kurds Much of it is based on Kurdish culture, drawing from my own experience as a Kurdish woman. Your character was born and raised in Arsur, where magic is considered a basic skill no different from reading or writing. The Arsurian Empire itself is overseen by a single ruler known as the Crown. Unlike traditional monarchies, however, the title is not inherited through blood. Whenever the Crown dies. Iraqi and Kurdish Cultural Values in the SemiAutonomous - State of Kurdistan . By Charles Rarick, Gregory Winter , Casimir Barczyk & Eric Merkt. Purdue University Calumet, United States . Abstract-This paper explores the cultural values of Kurdistan, a semi-autonomous region of Northern Iraq. An assessment of individuals from both Arab and Kurdish ethnicities was conducted using Hofstede's 5. Now Available for Android & iOS Devices! Trip planning, top tourist sites, offline viewing, and much more, for free

Kurdish Cultural Center of Illinois is a 501(c)3 non-for-profit organization dedicated to the bringing of people of interest in Kurdish Culture together, and building relationships within American communities across the States regardless of their background.Here at Kurdish Cultural Center of Illinois, we are driven by a single goal; to do our part in making the world a better place for all 01.03.2020 - Erkunde دریاs Pinnwand Kurdish Culture auf Pinterest. Weitere Ideen zu Kurdische kleider, Kurdische frauen, Kurdistan DIYARBAKIR, Turkey — Gosto's kebab shop is not the only diner on its block, let alone on its street. It is, however, the one that perhaps reveals most about the threat to Kurdish culture Kurdish Culture is a group of distinctive cultural traits practiced by Kurdish people. The Kurdish culture is a legacy from ancient peoples who shaped modern Kurds and their society. Contents Religion 1; See also 2; References 3; External links 4; Religion. Most Kurds have moderate tendencies toward religion. [1] [2] Female genital mutilation was an accepted part of Kurdish culture in Iraqi. Kurdish Culture, Repression, Women's Rights, and Resistance By Steven Argue The Kurdish people number at an estimated at 25-30 million people. They live in eastern Turkey, northern Iraq, northeastern Syria, northwest of the Zagros Mountains in Iran, and in Armenia. They also have a large émigré population in Western Europe. With 4-5 million people and 15-20% of the population the Kurds are.

Title: The Kurds Author: Heather Lehr Wagner Age Range: 11 and up Grade Level: 6 and up Series: Creation of the Modern Middle East Library Binding: 140 pages Publisher: Chelsea House Publications (August 1, 2002) Language: English ISBN-10: 0791065057 Summary: The history of the Kurdish struggle in the various lands they inhabit is the subject of this volume In 1997, the governor's office in Istanbul refused the Kurdish Culture and Research Foundation permission to offer Kurdish-language classes. Some Kurds are demanding cultural rights and even independence or regional autonomy for the southeast. Since 1984, the Kurdish Workers Party (PKK), a secessionist and sometimes terrorist organization, has been fighting the Turkish military in that area. Kurdish culture is a group of distinctive cultural traits practiced by Kurdish people. The Kurdish culture is a legacy from ancient peoples who shaped 1263 pp

Unravelling culture in Iraq's Kurdish region. Weaving and handicrafts are being re-taught to a younger generation of Iraqi Kurds, but not without challenges To Kurdish culture, family is key to honor. If one of the family members disrespect your elders the whole family lose their honor. Another key of honor is hospitlaty and wealth. A visual of Kurdistan, Kurdistan is part of Iran, Turkey , Syria, and Iraq. Usally most maps dont show Kurdistan. Kurdish flag Red = the bloodshed of trying to make this countrie a actully countrie White= the peacefull. Kurdish cuisine (Kurdish: خواردنی کوردی ‎ or Xwarina Kurdî) consists of a wide variety of foods prepared by the Kurdish people.There are cultural similarities of Kurds and their immediate neighbours in Iran, Turkey, Iraq, Syria, and Armenia.Some dishes, such as biryani, are shared with the Indian subcontinent.Kurdish food is typical of western Asian cuisine

Iran’s Kurdistan Province: From Sanandaj to Marivan | The

Kurdish marriage arrangements are very complex and defined by tribal traditions. Almost all Kirmanji-, Sorani-, Zaza-, and Gorani-speaking Kurds are historically tribal people, and tribal traditions continue to affect the daily experiences of tribal, as well as nontribal Kurds, who live in both rural and urban areas. The term mal also means a lineage in Kurdish. A lineage is a group of people. Your Kurdish Culture stock images are ready. Download all free or royalty-free photos and vectors. Use them in commercial designs under lifetime, perpetual. Kurdish culture is a group of distinctive cultural traits practiced by Kurdish people. The Kurdish culture is a legacy from ancient peoples who shaped modern Kurds and their society

Over 24 hours we present more than 25 political, cultural, and social programs in Kurdish and Arabic, says Zalal Binisi, the channel's director. We try to broadcast the Kurdish voice to the world. In one of the station's three studios, journalist Rudi Mohammad Amin prepares for his weekly discussion on social problems in the autonomous areas, donning traditional Kurdish wear of large, loose. Turkey's air raids destroyed the Ain Dara Hittite temple complex, an archaeological site south of #Afrin/Efrîn. This crime is not only against Kurds or Syrians, it's against the history of the whole world. #DefendAfri Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers Kurdish Culture and Identity book. Read reviews from world's largest community for readers. The more than 20 million Kurds in the Middle East are the lar..

What Happens When A Christian Falls In Love With A Muslim

Kurd History, Culture, & Language Britannic

Kurdish Culture and Society will be a valuable tool for researchers and students of Kurdish culture. - MESA Bulletin This annotated bibliography on Kurdish culture and society is the first of its kind, both in terms of the language of the sources and the subjects it covers. . . . [T]his bibliography will fill a gap in many libraries, both becuase very few major universities treat Kurdish. In this conversation. Verified account Protected Tweets @; Suggested user Here you can find the translation of the 50 most important words and expressions into Kurdish. If you are about to travel to Kurdistan, this is exactly what you are looking for! We will teach you: How to say Hello! and Goodbye in Kurdish! To say please and thank you in Kurdish! How to say yes and no in Kurdish! How do you say My name is.

Video: Traditions and Heritage Unbelievable Kurdistan

Kurds - Wikipedi

Culture of Iran: Kurdish Celebrations By: Keith Hitchins Community celebrations fulfill multiple roles in Kurdish social life, of which perhaps the most important function is to reinforce community solidarity, since they often encompass the entire village or neighborhood.Festivals also help to establish or consolidate an individual's status within the community, an essential service, inasmuch. The government has since launched a crackdown on Kurdish media organisations and culture centres. It was widened after Turkey's failed 2016 coup, with the government removing many elected mayors of Kurdish-run municipalities from the Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP) on terror-related charges and replacing them with trustees. The HDP took to Twitter to condemn the ban on a Kurdish. Among the attendees was the Co-chair of the Autonomous Administration of Kurdish cultural of Russian Federation Liana Samoyan and officials of the Yazidis Conference in Russia. The Kurds who live in the rest of the Russian cities organize themselves through the autonomous administrations of cultural, said Vladimir Smoyan, head of the Autonomous administration of Kurdish culture in Nizhny. Kurdish Culture / Erbil. Business Fashion Business Dress Business Chic Business Lady Style Work My Style Classic Style Work Fashion Fashion Outfits. BlueHost.com. my future wardrobe as an attorney. Kids Around The World Kurdistan Cute Little Things Muslim Girls Beautiful Children Baby Pictures Harajuku Earth Angels Pure Products. Beautiful children's kurdistan . Kurdistan Couture Dresses.

Learn more about Kurdish literature and culture at this webinar hosted by UCF School of Politics, Security, and International Affairs, and the UCF Department of Modern Languages & Literatures. UCF Assistant Professor Dr. Haidar Khezri will moderate the panel. To register for the Zoom meeting event contact: Kurdish@ucf.edu Haidar.Khezri@ucf.edu. Guest topics and speakers include: Music. I asked myself why, as a Kurdish opera singer, I didn't know my native language and culture. After this tragedy, I started researching Kurdish singers, authors, and music. I realized that I had. However, for people such as Khaleghi and other cultural figures, far more critical now is the battle they are fighting on the sidelines to preserve Kurdish heritage and culture. Lose this and the.

Kurdish Culture Stock-Fotos und Bilder - Getty Image

Schlagwort: Kurdish culture. Traveling Kurdistan in the 1960s with Dr. Christensen. One evening in New York City's financial district, Kurdish and non-Kurdish audiences had the opportunity of traveling across Kurdistan while Mehr. Dr. Dieter Christensen, Kurdish American Society, Kurdish culture, Kurdish life, kurdishherald, Natsumi Ajiki, Nerthus Christensen, Pirtuk u Weje. Shruti Ganapathy investigates Kurdish culture through a new exhibition at Hackney Museum. The Kurdish community is perhaps one of the oldest surviving of the Middle East. Its roots can be traced back to the Mesopotamian civilization that existed on the banks of the rivers Euphrates and Tigris. Hackney Museum, in association with the Halkevi Kurdish-Turkish Community Centre, is displaying the. WASHINGTON - The director of a Kurdish-language performance of a 1981 Italian play banned by the Turkish authorities four hours before its stage time is rejecting the government claim that it is a.

Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit Kurdish cultural association - Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen In the same context, the director of the Culture Center in Rome, Ahmed Soran, explained that he has close ties with Italian politicians, intellectuals and academics, through which he can establish relationships that lead to good use of them. And here it is worth that this center does not have any political links or interests, but rather that it works for the sake of serving the Kurdish people. (Translator Profile - Yehya Ehmed) Translation services in English to Kurdish (Computers: Software and other fields.

Kurdish culture and (Language) - SlideShar

Kurdish Culture: Music, art, cuisine, and a lot more. Posted on February 7, 2016 by Evanthegreek7. The Kurds are just fascinating people. Even though they are divided by national boundaries, they have united by living in the mountains, creating their own, unofficial nation, free from government oppression. Even more fascinating than the way the Kurds live is their culture. I found a great. But more than that- they are fighting for Kurdish schools, Kurdish businesses, Kurdish culture. Jaffer Sheyholislami. We gathered on Nov. 15, almost 100 of us, not to talk about the fight or the people dying on the mountains. We gathered to enjoy the talent of Shahram with his tanbour, the singing and film-making of children in Kobani, the poetry of Jaffer Sheyholislami and other Kurds, and.

Kurds - Introduction, Location, Language - Culture

Kurdish agency has been sorely lacking from narratives on Kurdish history until recently. While the concept of the Kurds as a people divided would really take shape in the modern period, the situation surrounding its emergence has indeed colored Kurdish history from the sixteenth . 10 century, and particularly since the nineteenth century. Outsiders have pointed to the fickle or. Some initial cultural works of Foundation For Kurdish Library & Museum: About the history of the Fermentation of the: MILK, YOGHURT & CHEESE About the food from The garden of Eden Allt Om Mat About the uprising of the civilisation at the historical geography of Kurdistan: KURDISTAN -HOMELAND OF THE WHEAT About the Kurdish Newroz Food at the Swedish National Channel TV4 (2007-3-20) The New. Kurdish Culture - Dance. Dance. Kurdish dance is a group of traditional hand-holding dances similar to those from the Balkans, Lebanon, and to Iraq. It is a form of round dancing, with a single or a couple of figure dancers often added to the geometrical centre of dancing circle. According to the Encyclopedia of Islam, Kurds sing and dance in all of their festivals, birthdays and marriage. Kurdish Academy of Language 'National Unity for Developing a Democratic National Culture' The first Kurdish culture, art and literature co.. Unique, timely, and up-to-date, this volume is the first comprehensive bibliography on Kurdish culture and society. Compiled to help students, educators, researchers, and policy makers find relevant information with ease, the book includes more than 930 items in four major languages--Arabic, English, French, and German. This work covers the fields of anthropology, archaeology, art.

Learn About Kurdish History & Culture The Kurdish Projec

Kurdish Culture; Kurdish Dress; Where is Kurdish Places; Archives Archives. Blog Stats. 1,062 hits; Categories. Uncategorized (4) Search for: FOOD. The Kurdish diet includes a wide variety of fruits and vegetables. Lamb and chicken are the primary meats. Breakfast is typically flat bread, cheese, honey, sheep or cow yoghurt, and a glass of black tea. For lunch, lamb and vegetables are simmered. This was the first Kurdish Culture, Literature and Art Conference organized by the Democratic Society Congress (DTK), Mesopotamia Cultural Centers (MKM) and Diyarbakir Municipality. This pioneering initiative had received the support of Kurdish politicians, activists, intellectuals and artists from different parts of the land. The conference organizers deserve congratulations for two days of. Of 40,386 formally charged, the death penalty was sought for 900. Of 70,000 current political detainees, more than 20,000 are reportedly Kurdish, and 90 percent of these are reputed to have been peaceful protestors for Kurdish cultural rights. To date, arrests in Kurdish provinces have totalled 81,634. Of these, 378 have allegedly been tortured. Under pressure from Kurdish revolutionaries gathered around the much missed Dr. Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou, whose memory is engraved in the depths of our hearts, who demand incessantly the recognition of their language and their culture, the Iranian authorities are forced to tolerate the publication of various Kurdish works. If all literary creation remains forbidden, censorship authorizes the. Storytelling troupe revives Kurdish culture Dicle Eşiyok; Dec 16 2018 09:11 Gmt+3; Last Updated On: Dec 17 2018 01:32 Gmt+3; Sages say every folktale is an undiscovered wound on the soul. As you listen, the wound stings at first, but then it begins to heal itself. Not so long ago, Turkey's electricity grid failed to reach many Kurdish villages in the country's remote southeast. As soon as.

Iran – Ethnically diverse with Persians, Azeri, Gilaki

Today, they form a distinctive community, united through race, culture and language, even though they have no standard dialect. They also adhere to a number of different religions and creeds. Kurdish culture (Kurdish:کولتووری كوردی (Kulturi Kurdi) or çand û toreya kurdî) is a group of distinctive cultural traits practiced by Kurdish people.The Kurdish culture is a legacy from ancient peoples who shaped modern Kurds and their society, but primarily of two layers of indigenous (Hurrian),and of the ancient ().. The Kurdish culture is close to that of other Iranian. View Academics in Kurdish Culture on Academia.edu Kurdish culture (Kurdish:کولتووری كوردی (Kulturi Kurdi) or çand û toreya kurdî) is a group of distinctive cultural traits practiced by Kurdish people. The Kurdish culture is a legacy from ancient peoples who shaped modern Kurds and their society, but primarily of two layers of indigenous (Hurrian),and of the ancient

  • Pokemon blattgrün kapoera.
  • Golfclub haghof gastronomie.
  • Wie werde ich unabhängiger finanzberater.
  • Erdmännchen selber füttern.
  • Drehschwindel übungen.
  • Mein fake date film.
  • Pueblo tabak zusatzstoffe.
  • Robert ri’chard.
  • Rose bikes händler.
  • Altersbeschränkung red bull.
  • Klassenregeln beispiele.
  • Sportler des jahres 1967.
  • Gnss empfänger.
  • Karlsbad kur preise.
  • Was du nicht willst das man dir tut englisch.
  • Regierungspräsidium stuttgart approbation.
  • Online geld verdienen.
  • Danke auf indisch.
  • Assassin's creed 3 trainer.
  • Feldwebel gehalt.
  • China rundreise 2018.
  • Nebenkostenabrechnung frist bgb.
  • Garnelen und krebse kaufen.
  • Rt live youtube.
  • Architektur 18. jahrhundert.
  • Dachschindeln globus baumarkt.
  • Bekenntnisse einer highschool diva englischer titel.
  • B1a4 accident.
  • Wie entsteht regen grundschule.
  • Telekom tablet aktion.
  • Join me in death.
  • Spielsucht forum.
  • Staatsangehörigkeitsausweis vor und nachteile.
  • Wetter.de gütersloh.
  • Https www hofstede insights com country comparison germany.
  • Bayer duales studium.
  • Piranhas 2 film.
  • Speedport smart mit splitter anschließen.
  • Houston dome stadium.
  • Isdn telefonanlage an ip anschluss.
  • Gruppenarbeit definition pädagogik.